Interested in samples?

Contact our Health Nutrition Specialists today. They are happy to answer any question or comment you may have.

Contact

Want to learn more?

Contact our Animal Nutrition Specialists today. They are happy to answer any question or comment you may have.

Contact

Fatty Acid Review

Palmitic and Stearic Acids: Absorption and Digestion

Rumen microbes increase the amount of stearic acid that leaves the rumen and enters the small intestine for absorption. This article explores the biohydrogenation of unsaturated dietary fatty acids in the rumen and their absorption, showing that palmitic and stearic acid digestibilities are equal.
view publication

Palmitic and Stearic Acids: Metabolism and Tissue Ulitization

The composition, metabolism and utilization of fatty acids in adipose, mammary and liver tissues are affected by dietary fat supplements. This article reviews the roles of dietary palmitic and stearic acids and their involvement in tissue metabolism.

view publication

Palmitic and Stearic Acids: Milk Fatty Acids

Feeding high levels of either Palmitic (C16:0) or Stearic (C18:0) acids affects milk fatty acid composition. Research trials are highlighted in this article that show the effects of high dietary levels of these fatty acids on milk yield and components.

view publication

Palmitic and Stearic Acids: Maintaining Milk Fluidity

The mammary gland is constantly combining milk fatty acids of different melting points to maintain the fluidity of milk within the gland. Obstacles posed by diets high in Palmitic Acid (C16:0) on the processes involved in maintaining milk fluidity are discussed in the article.

view publication

Palmitic and Stearic Acids: What Should the Composition of Your Inert Fat Supplement Be?

Trials that used a balanced approach to feeding supplemental Palmitic (C16:0) and Stearic (C18:0) Acids to lactating cows show improved milk yield, milk fat% and milk fat yield, This article compares the effects of feeding a high level of either fatty acid alone with the more sustainable effects of a balanced fatty acid approach.

view publication

Palmitic & Stearic Acids Video Series

 

Palmitic and stearic acids are the two major fatty acids provided in fat supplements for dairy cows. The Palmitic & Stearic Acid Video Series builds a solid foundation for understanding how these two important fatty acids are metabolized and how they affect milk fatty acids and energy balance in dairy cows.

 

Palmitic & Stearic Acids: Digestion (1 of 7)

This first video explains how rumen microbes alter the composition of fatty acids in the rumen through lipolysis and biohydrogenation of unsaturated dietary fatty acids, increasing the flow of stearic acid into the small intestine for absorption.

 

 

Palmitic & Stearic Acids: Absorption (2 of 7)

The digestive and absorptive systems of the cow have developed a way of solubilizing high levels of stearic acids into micelles. This second video looks at the processes involved in absorption of fatty acids from the small intestine of the cow.

 

 

Palmitic & Stearic Acids: Digestibility Values (3 of 7)

Early reseach did not account for biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen, leading to incorrect fatty acid digestibility values. This video shows how digestibility research clearly demonstrates that digestibility values of palmitic and stearic acid are the same.

 

 

Palmitic & Stearic Acids: Metabolism and Tissue Utilization (4 of 7)

The composition, metabolism and utilization of fatty acids in adipose, mammary and liver tissues are affected by dietary fat supplements. This video discusses how dietary palmitic and stearic acids are metabolized and utilized in these different body tissues.

 

 

 

Palmitic & Stearic Acids: Milk Fatty Acids (5 of 7)

Feeding high levels of either Palmitic (C16:0) or Stearic (C18:0) acids affects milk fatty acid composition. Research trials are highlighted in this video that show the effects of high dietary levels of these fatty acids on milk yield and components.

 

 

Palmitic & Stearic Acids: Milk Fluidity (6 of 7)

The mammary gland is constantly combining milk fatty acids of different melting points to maintain the fluidity of milk within the gland. Obstacles posed by diets high in Palmitic Acid (C16:0) on the processes involved in maintaining milk fluidity are discussed in the video.

 

 

Palmitic & Stearic Acids: What should your fat supplement look like? (7 of 7)

Trials that used a balanced approach to feeding supplemental Palmitic (C16:0) and Stearic (C18:0) Acids to lactating cows show improved milk yield, milk fat% and milk fat yield, This video compares the effects of feeding a high level of either fatty acid alone with the more sustainable effects of a balanced fatty acid approach.

Invited Review: Palmitic and stearic acid metabolism in lactating dairy cows. JDS-97-4661-4674
Stearic, palmitic acids in dairy cow nutrition (Chapter 1). Feedstuffs July 21, 2014
Stearic, palmitic acids affect milk composition (Chapter 2). Feedstuffs August 11, 2014

Heat Stress

Summer Heat Stress—Nutritional Strategies to Minimize the Effect
Summer heat stress affects cows throughout the U.S., resulting in reduced feed intake, lower milk production, poor reproductive performance and excessive weight loss. This article explores the metabolic effects of heat stress and the role of supplemental fat and other nutritional strategies to minimize these negative effects.

view publication

Potassium and It’s Benefits During Heat Stress and Milk Fat Depression
Potassium is involved in many biological processes in the body, is the major mineral secreted into milk and lost through sweating, and is a key electrolyte in rumen fluid. Adding potassium carbonate to the ration can provide needed potassium to the body and can improve DCAD in the rumen, raising pH, helping to prevent or alleviate milk fat depression

view publication

Heat Stress Video Series
Heat Stress: What You Can Do About It

Summer heat stress affects cows throughout the U.S., resulting in reduced feed intake, lower milk production, poor reproductive performance and excessive weight loss. This video explores the metabolic effects of heat stress and the role of supplemental fat and other nutritional strategies to minimize these negative effects.

 

The Importance of Potassium During Heat Stress

Feed "A Cool Fat to a Hot Cow!"
The key to keeping cows producing milk and milk fat in the heat is to provide an energy-dense diet that does not reduce dry matter intake or adversely affect rumen health. Cows fed Energy Booster 100® did not experience increases in body temperature during the hottest time of the day and improved milk and milk fat production during heat stress.

view publication

The Nutritional Consultant’s Digest

Vol 37. What Should the Composition of Your Inert Fatty Acid Supplement Be?
Trials that used a balanced approach to feeding supplemental Palmitic (C16:0) and Stearic (C18:0) Acids to lactating cows show improved milk yield, milk fat% and milk fat yield, This article compares the effects of feeding a high level of either fatty acid alone with the more sustainable effects of a balanced fatty acid approach.

view publication

Vol 36. Palmitic & Stearic Acids: Maintaining Milk Fluidity
The mammary gland is constantly combining milk fatty acids of different melting points to maintain the fluidity of milk within the gland. Obstacles posed by diets high in Palmitic Acid (C16:0) on the processes involved in maintaining milk fluidity are discussed in the article.

view publication

Vol 35. Palmitic & Stearic Acids: Milk Fatty Acids
Feeding high levels of either Palmitic (C16:0) or Stearic (C18:0) acids affects milk fatty acid composition. Research trials are highlighted in this article that show the effects of high dietary levels of these fatty acids on milk yield and components.

view publication

Vol 34. Palmitic & Stearic Acids: Metabolism and Tissue Utilization
The composition, metabolism and utilization of fatty acids in adipose, mammary and liver tissues are affected by dietary fat supplements. This article reviews the roles of dietary palmitic and stearic acids and their involvement in tissue metabolism.
view publication

Vol 33. Palmitic & Stearic Acids: Digestion and Absorption
Rumen microbes increase the amount of stearic acid that leaves the rumen and enters the small intestine for absorption. This article explores the biohydrogenation of unsaturated dietary fatty acids in the rumen and their absorption, showing that palmitic and stearic acid digestibilities are equal.

view publication

Vol 32. Potassium and It’s Benefits During Heat Stress and Milk Fat Depression
Potassium is involved in many biological processes in the body, is the major mineral secreted into milk and lost through sweating, and is a key electrolyte in rumen fluid. Adding potassium carbonate to the ration can provide needed potassium to the body and can improve DCAD in the rumen, raising pH, helping to prevent or alleviate milk fat depression

view publication

Vol 31. Summer Heat Stress -- Nutritional Strategies to Minimize the Effect
Summer heat stress affects cows throughout the U.S., resulting in reduced feed intake, lower milk production, poor reproductive performance and excessive weight loss. This article explores the metabolic effects of heat stress and the role of supplemental fat and other nutritional strategies to minimize these negative effects.

view publication

Vol 30. Energy Booster Mag
Adding magnesium to the same high quality fatty acids as Energy Booster results in a harder prill with improved handling properties in feed mills and on farm during heat stress. Product features and properties, feeding recommendations and magnesium metabolism are discussed in this article.

view publication

Vol 29. Energy Booster Select
Energy Booster Select is an economical, science-based substitute for liquid fat. The university research presented in this article shows that the special blend of fatty acids and triglycerides in Energy Booster Select increases milk production, milk fat yield and feed efficiency without leading to milk fat depression.

view publication

Vol 28. Feeding High Levels of Linoleic Acid Depresses Intake and Milk Fat Production
Linoleic acid is the major cause of milk fat depression resulting from feeding unsaturated fatty acids. Research results indicate that feeding high levels of linoleic acid by feeding corn, corn silage, DDGS, whole cottonseed, roasted or whole soybeans and calcium salts lead to reduced dry matter intake, severely reduced milk fat and changes in metabolism in lactating cows throughout their lactation.

view publication

Vol 26. Feed ||A Cool Fat to a Hot Cow!||
The key to keeping cows producing milk and milk fat in the heat is to provide an energy-dense diet that does not reduce dry matter intake or adversely affect rumen health. Cows fed Energy Booster 100® did not experience increases in body temperature during the hottest time of the day and improved milk and milk fat production during heat stress.

view publication

Vol 25. Invest in Your Cows' Energy Bank
In earlier lactation, cows cannot eat enough to meet their energy requirements for milk production so they make withdrawals from their energy bank. The most valuable currency to deposit in the cows’ energy bank is dietary fat because it has 2.25 times more energy than protein and carbohydrate. Invest in a fat source that does not reduce intake, helps increase milk production and maintains milk components.

view publication

Vol 24. Boost Peak Milk to Increase Total Milk
Peak and early milk yield have tremendous impact on total lactation milk yield. The earlier and higher peak yield occurs, the higher the total lactation yield. NEL intake must be maximized in early lactation to minimize negative energy balance and to maximize peak and total lactation milk yield. The right fat supplementation can increase energy and total NEL.

view publication

Vol 22. Return Cows to Positive Energy Balance Sooner!
The most important factor in a cow’s return to positive energy balance after calving in Net Energy of Lactation (NEL) which is a function of Dry Matter Intake (DMI) and the energy density of the diet. The key is to increase energy without decreasing DMI. This article compares the effects of Energy Booster 100 and calcium salts on DMI and NEL intake on return to positive energy status.

view publication

Vol 21. Reproducing Great Body Condition
A cow’s energy status and the number of days from calving to the lowest point of negative energy balance are correlated with the interval to first ovulation after calving. When cows carry moderate body condition (> 3.25) in early lactation, cows are more likely to be ovular and have greater reproductive efficiency. The key is to keep cows consuming a palatable, energy-dense ration in early lactation.

view publication

Vol 18. Got Milk Fat Depression? Get Solutions
Certain dietary conditions alter rumen biohydrogenation pathways, resulting in production of fatty acid intermediates that inhibit milk fat synthesis. Low rumen pH and dietary inclusion of ingredients such as corn byproducts, high corn silage, fish oil and fat supplements that contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid, can lead to reduced milk fat production. Using a fat supplement high in saturated fatty acids and low in unsaturated fatty acids can help avoid milk fat depression.

view publication

Vol 17. Do Reproductive Fat Supplements Deliver?
Unsaturated fatty acids have been shown to improve embryo viability. Calcium soaps of fatty acids contain a high level of unsaturated fatty acids and are marketed on the premise that these fatty acids are protected and will be delivered to the small intestine for absorption. Research clearly shows extensive biohydrogenation of these fatty acids in the rumen, and that this is not a valid premise.

view publication

Vol 15. Feed a Pound, Earn a Ton with High Forage Ration
This article reviews a university study that fed a high forage ration with one pound of Energy Booster 100 per head per day — an alternative to reducing forage level to increase energy density. Cows fed Energy Booster 100 had increased feed efficiency and income over feed costs.

view publication

Vol 14. Making Milk But Losing Body Condition? Is Your Fat Supplement to Blame?
This research review compares the performance of a saturated free fatty acid product (Energy Booster 100) to calcium soaps of long chain fatty acids (Megalac and Megalac-R) in production and digestion/metabolism trials. The Megalac products depressed dry matter intake, resulting in more mobilization of body reserves as cows attempted to maintain milk production, which was significantly less than the cows fed Energy Booster 100.

view publication

Vol 13. Choose Fat Wisely for Optimum Nutrient Digestibility
Nutrient digestibility can be affected by fat supplementation. Dry matter intake, the chemical structure of the fat supplement, rate of passage through the rumen and digestion rates of the various dietary components all influence nutrient digestibility. This article reviews the effects of hydrogenated free fatty acids, calcium soaps of long chain fatty acids and hydrogenated palm oil on these digestion parameters.

view publication

Vol 12. New Research Confirms Calcium Soaps' Drawbacks
This research review points to the fact that calcium soaps of long chain fatty acids decrease Dry Matter Intake (DMI), and the more calcium soaps fed, the greater the reduction in DMI. Researchers found that there was no difference in energy digestibility between the calcium soaps, hydrogenated palm oil and no fat treatments.Even though calcium soaps increased DE in the diet, the reduction in DMI caused by calcium soaps cancelled out the improved energy digestibility.

view publication

Vol 11. Is Your Fat Masquerading as a Rumen By-Pass Fat?
Although claimed as rumen inert, research clearly shows that the fatty acids in calcium soaps are very reactive in rumen fluid, with over 80% of the unsaturated fatty acids being biohydrogenated by rumen microorganisms.

view publication

Vol 10. ||Conceptually|| Brighter Fertility by Feeding Transition Cows the Right Fatty Acids
Feeding dry cows a high stearic acid fat (Energy Booster 100®) significantly increased pregnancy rates and decreased days open during the subsequent lactation when compared to dry cows that received no added fat. Pregnancy rates were 86 vs 58%, and days open were 110 vs 141 for cows consuming the Energy Booster 100 diet vs no fat supplementation.

view publication

Vol 8. Energy Booster 100 Adds Protein Value to Milk
Researchers find that cows fed Energy Booster 100 averaged 3.07% protein compared to 3.02% for cows fed calcium soaps of long chain fatty acids (P < 0.02). Cows fed Energy Booster 100 spent more time ruminating and less time idle and had greater dry matter intake compared to cows fed calcium soap.

view publication

Vol 7. High Producing Cows: FAQs for Feeding Fat
This publication provides a quick reference of answers to Frequently Asked Questions about feeding fat to high producing dairy cows.

view publication

Vol 6. High Stearic Acid Fats May Reduce Fatty Liver Troubles
The fatty acid profile of dietary fat may significantly affect the amount of fat that accumulates in the liver of early lactation cows. Excessive accumulation can lead to fatty liver syndrome. Research shows that dietary fats high in stearic acid (C18:0) and low in palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) acids may reduce liver triglyceride accumulation in early lactation cows. No Stearic acid was found to accumulate in the liver, even though liver concentrations of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids increased dramatically.Feeding an appropriate supplemental fat can lower fatty liver risk factors.

view publication

Vol 5. She's Carrying a Calf Sooner, Thanks to Fat
Losing more than 1.0 body condition score units during the first five weeks of lactation results in: an 11-day increase in days to first ovulation, a 26-day increase in days to conception, a 36% decrease in first service conception rates, and a 19% decrease in conception
rates for all services. Research shows dietary fats, particularly digestible fats high in stearic acid, reduce body condition loss in early lactation, helping improve reproductive performance.

view publication

Vol 4. Digestibility: Setting the Story Straight on Stearic and Palmitic Fatty Acids
Widespread use of apparent digestibility measurements in feeding trials has fueled misconceptions about fatty acid digestibility. The best estimate of fatty acid digestibility is “small intestinal digestibility”. Total intestinal digestibility (misnamed “true digestibility”) results in large errors when individual fatty acid digestibility is estimated because it fails to account for biohydrogenation in the large intestine and ruminal effects on individual fatty acids. Based upon the only trial with reliable data, the small intestinal digestibility of all fatty acids was identical (80.5%).

view publication

Vol 3. How to Give Ration Energy Density a Shot in the Arm Without Shooting DMI in the Foot
Different types of fats have dramatically different effects on dry matter intake (DMI). Fats high in unsaturated fatty acids have a negative effect on DMI. Unsaturated fatty acids impair fiber digestion, are toxic to rumen bacteria, and signal the cow to stop eating. Calcium soaps depress DMI because they contain 45% unsaturated fatty acids. To increase energy consumption, choose a fat proven to
maintain or increase DMI.

view publication

Vol 2. Dry Fats... As Different As Holsteins and Herefords
A fat’s performance depends on its makeup. This article evaluates fat supplements according to total energy content, effect on dry matter intake, digestibility and cost per unit of energy.

view publication

Vol 1. Fine Tuning Energy Calculations for Fat
As intake of an ingredient increases, its digestibility decreases. This is known as marginal digestibility. The form of a fatty acid supplement affects intake and the digestibility of the fat. This article shows how marginal digestibility affects energy values of fat supplements, providing more accurate values for ration formulation

view publication